Rare Earth Industry Development Plan (2016-2020)
- Categories:Industry trends
- Time of issue:2020-07-21
Rare Earth Industry Development Plan (2016-2020)
Rare Earth Industry Development Plan (2016-2020)
Rare Earth Industry Development Plan (2016-2020)
(Summary description)Rare earth is an important non-renewable strategic resource and an indispensable key element to transform traditional industries, develop emerging industries, and defense technology industries. With the continuous deepening of the world's scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation, the application value of rare earths in the national economy and social development will be further enhanced.
- Categories:Industry trends
- Time of issue:2020-07-21
Rare earth is an important non-renewable strategic resource and an indispensable key element to transform traditional industries, develop emerging industries, and defense technology industries. With the continuous deepening of the world's scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation, the application value of rare earths in the national economy and social development will be further enhanced. According to the "Outline of the 13th Five-Year Plan for the National Economic and Social Development of the People's Republic of China" and the overall deployment of "Made in China 2025" and the "Several Opinions of the State Council on Promoting the Sustainable and Healthy Development of the Rare Earth Industry" (Guo Fa  No. 12 , Hereinafter referred to as the "Several Opinions"), in order to scientifically guide the development of the rare earth industry and promote the overall development of the rare earth industry to the mid-to-high end, this plan is specially formulated.
1. Development basis
(1) Current status of the industry
Since the promulgation of the "Several Opinions" in 2011, the rare earth industry has made positive progress in resource protection, industrial structure adjustment, application industry development, innovation capability enhancement, and management system construction, and the quality of industry development has reached a new level.
1. A breakthrough was made in the adjustment of industrial structure. First, the industrial concentration has increased substantially. The number of rare earth smelting and separation enterprises has been reduced from 99 to 59, and the pattern of 6 rare earth groups dominating the market has taken shape. It has integrated 22 of the country’s 23 rare earth mines and 54 of the 59 smelting and separation enterprises, and has reversed In the small and scattered situation, the smelting and separation capacity has been reduced from 400,000 tons to 300,000 tons. The second is to further optimize the product structure. The industrial structure based on resource extraction, smelting and separation, and primary product processing is accelerating the shift to a direction of mid-to-high-end materials and application products. More than 80% of primary processed products are used to manufacture magnetism, catalysis, hydrogen storage, luminescence, Functional materials such as polishing. The third is that the industrial layout tends to be more reasonable. Build rare earth resource mining and smelting and separation bases in Baotou, Ganzhou, Liangshan, Longyan, etc. around resource areas, with production capacity accounting for 90% and 60% of the country respectively; build rare earth application industrial bases in Ningbo, Xiamen, Chengdu, and Baotou around the consumer market, and rare earth magnetism The industrial scale of catalysis and luminescent materials accounted for more than 70%, 50% and 45% of the country respectively.
2. The application industry has achieved remarkable results. First, the scale of the application industry continues to expand. The output of rare earth magnetism and catalytic materials has an average annual growth rate of more than 15%, and the output of major functional materials such as rare earth magnetism, luminescence, and hydrogen storage accounts for more than 70% of the total global output. Second, product performance has been greatly improved. The comprehensive performance of rare earth magnetic materials (energy product + coercivity) has been increased from 60 to over 70, which basically meets the needs of electric vehicles and wind power generation equipment. Automobile exhaust gas purification catalysts meet the national V standard, and the self-sufficiency rate of domestic petroleum cracking catalysts exceeds 90% , The luminous efficiency of LED devices is increased from 90 lumens/watt to more than 150 lumens/watt. The third is to achieve a batch of breakthrough results. Domestic automobile exhaust catalysts and devices have entered internationally renowned companies. Rare earth denitration catalysts have been used in industrialized demonstration applications in the treatment of industrial kilns such as electric power, steel and glass. High-end rare earth laser crystals, scintillation crystals, ultra-high purity rare earth metals and compounds, Breakthroughs have been made in key preparation technologies such as high-performance rare earth alloys, and the products basically meet the urgent needs of key projects and national defense science and engineering.
3. The ability of sustainable development is further improved. One is the substantial increase in innovation capabilities. The proportion of enterprise R&D expenses in operating income has increased from 2% to more than 3%, and 7 rare earth public technology service platforms integrating technology research and development, industrial transformation, analysis and testing, and application evaluation have been built, and the research and comprehensive utilization of rare earth resources in Baiyun Obo have been built. , Rare earth permanent magnet materials and other key laboratories to form a strategic alliance for technological innovation of advanced rare earth materials industry. The second is that the company's strength has increased significantly. A number of well-known rare earth new materials enterprises have been formed, and the equipment, technology and management level have been greatly improved. Third, the level of environmental protection has improved significantly. The whole industry invested more than 8 billion yuan to carry out environmental protection reforms, 85 companies passed the inspection of rare earth environmental protection, and 45 companies passed the access of the rare earth industry. The level of green rare earth production has been greatly improved.
4. The industry management system is basically sound. One is to improve the industry management organization. An inter-ministerial coordination mechanism for rare metals led by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology was established, a rare earth office was established, and the China Rare Earth Industry Association was established; local rare earth offices and corresponding coordination agencies were established in major rare earth producing regions. The second is to formulate an industry management system. Promulgated and implemented management systems such as the total production control plan for rare earth mining, industry norms, environmental protection verification, special value-added tax invoices, resource taxes, strategic reserves, and industrial adjustment and upgrading fiscal special projects. Third, local regulatory responsibilities have been implemented. Ganzhou, Jiangxi, Longyan, Fujian and other places have established a networked management system for cities, counties and townships. Fourth, a relatively complete system of rare earth technical standards has been established, covering the entire industry chain of rare earth mining, smelting, separation, and processing. The standards are implemented in conjunction with relevant national policies to effectively regulate rare earth production and trade activities.
5. Rare earth violations of laws and regulations have been curbed. The first is to continue to crack down on rare earth violations. Relevant departments have coordinated and cooperated and carried out several special operations against illegal activities in the rare earth industry. A total of 113 cases of violations of laws and regulations have been investigated, 14 illegal mining sites have been destroyed, 28 production companies have been shut down, 19 trading companies have been punished, illegal and smuggling have been seized More than 36,000 tons of rare earth minerals were fined 230 million yuan. Second, the Baiyun Obo mining area and tailings pond in Baotou City, Inner Mongolia have achieved fully enclosed management; key resource areas such as Ganzhou in Jiangxi and Liangshan in Sichuan have built rare earth mining protection facilities and mining supervision systems. The third is to establish a traceability system for rare earth products. In accordance with the “Opinions of the General Office of the State Council on Accelerating the Establishment of the Traceability System for Important Products” (Guobanfa  No. 95), the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology has carried out the construction of a traceability system for rare earth products to realize the separation of rare earth products from mining and smelting (including Comprehensive utilization of resources) product traceability management from distribution to export.
At present, there are still some problems in the development of China's rare earth industry, which are mainly reflected in: resource protection still needs to be strengthened, private digging and illegal mining, trading and processing of illegal rare earth mineral products, illegal production and other problems occur from time to time; continuous innovation ability is not strong, core patents are controlled by others , The overall strength of basic research needs to be improved; structural contradictions are still prominent, upstream smelting and separation capacity is overcapacity, downstream high-end application products are relatively insufficient, and element application is not balanced; related legal systems are still incomplete, and some local government regulatory responsibilities have not been fully implemented.
(2) Facing the situation
The "13th Five-Year Plan" is a critical period for the transformation and upgrading of the rare earth industry and improving the quality and efficiency of development. On the whole, my country's rare earth industry has more opportunities than challenges.
The main opportunities for development: First, the strategic position of rare earths has become more prominent. Major industrialized countries attach great importance to the strategic value of rare earths and the development and application of related fields. As the world's scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation continue to deepen, its strategic position and role will be further highlighted. The second is the sustainable development strategy to create new space for industrial development. The 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed the "Beautiful China" strategy to promote the construction of ecological civilization at the national level and realize green, circular and low-carbon development. The application prospects of rare earths in the fields of energy saving and environmental protection are broad, and the market demand will increase substantially. Third, "Made in China 2025" has injected new momentum into the development of the rare earth industry. The new generation of information technology industry proposed by "Made in China 2025", high-end CNC machine tools and robots, aerospace equipment, marine engineering equipment and high-tech ships, advanced rail transit equipment, energy-saving and new energy vehicles, power equipment, agricultural machinery equipment, new materials , Biomedicine and high-performance medical equipment, and other ten key areas are highly related to the rare earth industry, and put forward higher requirements on the guarantee capacity and quality performance of rare earth materials, which will drive the rapid development of the rare earth industry. Fourth, a diversified pattern of rare earth supply has basically taken shape. The United States, Australia, Canada, Russia, South Africa, Chile, Brazil and other key resource countries have launched a number of rare earth resource development projects, which have initially formed mining and separation processing capabilities, alleviating the pressure on my country's resource supply.
The main challenges faced: First, the excess production capacity of rare earth primary products, illegal mining and illegal production have been repeatedly prohibited, leading to low prices of rare earth products and failing to reflect the value of scarce resources. It is urgently required to further regulate the industry order, strictly control the increase, and optimize the processing of rare earth primary products Inventory, eliminate backward production capacity. Second, my country’s rare earth industry as a whole is at the middle and low end of the world’s rare earth industry chain. There is still a big gap between high-end materials and devices and advanced countries, and there is a lack of independent intellectual property technology. The industry as a whole needs to be driven by low-cost resources and factor inputs to expand into new Innovations in technology, new products and effective supply drive transformation, optimize the industrial structure, and focus on the development of high-end rare earth materials and device industries. The third is that the level of clean production cannot meet the requirements of the country's ecological civilization construction. The safety and environmental protection pressure and factor cost constraints of industry development have become increasingly prominent, and the tasks of supply-side structural reform, quality improvement, and green sustainable development are arduous.
Second, the overall idea
(1) Guiding ideology
Fully implement the spirit of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China and the 3rd, 4th and 5th Plenary Sessions of the 18th Central Committee, firmly establish and implement the development concepts of innovation, coordination, greenness, openness, and sharing, and thoroughly implement "Made in China 2025" and strategic New industries and other national strategies, guided by innovation, continue to promote supply-side structural reforms, strengthen the protection of rare earth strategic resources, standardize the production order of rare earth resources, effectively resolve excess capacity in smelting separation and low-end applications, improve the level of intelligent manufacturing, and expand The high-end application of rare earths will improve the quality and efficiency of industry development and give full play to the strategic value and supporting role of rare earths.
(2) Basic principles
Persist in innovative development. With scientific and technological innovation as the core, strengthen the dominant position of the enterprise, improve the innovation system combining "government, industry, university, research and application", accelerate the integration of the two, break through the key core technology constraints, and create a batch of iconic products and brands.
Persist in coordinated development. Driven by market demand, optimize the industrial structure, expand the application of rare earths, strengthen the connection of new rare earth materials, devices and end application markets, and realize the simultaneous transformation and upgrading of upstream and downstream industries; strengthen information sharing, improve policy and regulation systems, and improve national and local policies Complementarity of measures.
Persist in green development. Accelerate the research and development of comprehensive utilization of resources and clean production transformation, promote the green and low-carbon development model, develop a circular economy, reduce the generation and discharge of pollutants, improve the utilization of resources and energy, and expand the application of rare earth materials in the field of energy conservation and environmental protection.
Adhere to open development. Coordinate the domestic and international "two resources, two markets", promote the simultaneous development of investment and intelligence, support qualified enterprises to carry out overseas mineral resource development and application industry cooperation, promote the internationalization of China's rare earth standards, and improve international competitiveness.
Insist on shared development. Strengthen the protection of rare earth resources, guarantee the long-term development needs of the country, promote the transformation and upgrading of the rare earth resources real estate industry, realize the organic unity of corporate interests, local economic development and national strategic will, maintain the balance of market supply and demand, realize high-value utilization, and promote the development of rare earth industry Coordinated development of related industries.
(3) Development goals
By 2020, a new pattern of the rare earth industry featuring rational development, orderly production, efficient utilization, technological innovation, and coordinated development will be formed. The industry as a whole will enter a development stage dominated by mid-to-high-end applications and high value-added applications. Strategic value.
1. The innovation ability has been greatly improved. A number of innovation centers with first-class technology and advanced equipment have been built, and a number of breakthrough results have been achieved. The high-end rare earth functional materials and devices with independent intellectual property rights have reached or approached the international advanced level. The proportion of R&D expenses of key enterprises in operating income has increased from 3% to 5%.
2. The degree of intensification has increased significantly. The six major rare earth groups have completed the integration of all rare earth mining, smelting and separation, and resource comprehensive utilization enterprises across the country, forming a scientific and standardized modern corporate governance structure. The protection of rare earth resources has been further improved, and the entire industry has achieved green transformation, effectively guaranteeing the security of national strategic resources.
3. The supporting capacity is significantly enhanced. More than 80% of key high-end rare earth functional materials and devices basically meet the application needs of new-generation information technology, high-end equipment, new energy vehicles, high-performance medical equipment, energy conservation and environmental protection, and national defense science and industry.
4. Strengthen industry management in accordance with the law. Industry management laws and regulations are basically sound, departmental collaboration has been further strengthened, and management systems such as production volume control plans and industry standard conditions have been effectively implemented.
5. The application industry continues to develop. In order to meet the needs of the ten key areas of "Made in China 2025" as the goal, the output of major rare earth functional materials will increase by more than 15% annually, the proportion of mid-to-high-end rare earth functional materials has increased significantly, the industry as a whole has entered the mid-to-high-end development stage, and it has become a global rare earth technology. And industrial power ranks.
3. Key tasks
(1) Strengthen resource and ecological protection and promote sustainable development
1. Strengthen the management of rare earth resources
Strengthen the state's unified planning for the exploration, development and utilization of rare earth resources, and rationally regulate the total amount of mining and production according to the resource situation and market demand, to ensure national economic security and long-term development needs, and control the annual mining volume of rare earths at 140,000 tons by 2020 Within. Severely crack down on violations of laws and regulations in the production of rare earths, and protect them in development and develop in protection. Strict market access system, except for six large rare earth enterprise groups, no new mining rights will be added. Continue to support key resource areas such as Baotou in Inner Mongolia, Liangshan in Sichuan, Ganzhou in Jiangxi, and Longyan in Fujian to improve resource protection and monitoring facilities in mining areas, and strengthen technological transformation of rare earth mining and dressing projects. Strengthen the resource reserve and protection of proven large and medium-sized mineral deposits, link up with the "National Mineral Resources Planning (2016-2020)", delimit a batch of nationally planned mining areas, implement unified planning, large-scale development, focus on supervision, and promote quality Resource protection and rational use.
2. Strengthen ecological protection of resource areas
Strictly implement national and local pollutant emission standards, strictly review construction projects and corporate environmental assessments, and resolutely eliminate outdated production capacity. Promote the use of new mining technologies and techniques, implement the geological environmental protection and governance restoration guarantee system and economic responsibilities of rare earth mines, strengthen the treatment, disposal and comprehensive utilization of tailings ponds, and implement a production sewage permit system; promote the integration of ionic rare earth ore leaching and extraction , New smelting separation pollution prevention and control technology to promote cleaner production in the industry. Establish a rare earth green development mechanism, implement industry norms and conditions, and fully implement mandatory clean production audits in the rare earth industry.
3. Manage rare earth elements by function
The rare earth elements are divided into three categories: strategic, critical and general according to the degree of resource scarcity and functional development, and implement element classification management to achieve the matching of element value and economic benefits. Strengthen the reserve of strategic and key products, and improve the rare earth reserve system. Strengthen the management of the entire industry chain of the mining, production, and circulation of medium and heavy rare earth elements, and resolutely crack down on illegal and illegal production of rare earths, export smuggling, and tax evasion.
(2) Supporting innovation system and capacity building, and cultivating new industry drivers
1. Improve the industry innovation system
Give full play to the core leading role of scientific and technological innovation, improve the rare earth innovation system that is enterprise-oriented, market-oriented, and "government-industry-university-research-application" combined, and promote the construction of national and industry innovation centers and service platforms. Aiming at "Made in China 2025", strategic emerging industries and other national strategies and the commanding heights of future industrial development, carry out original innovation, integrated innovation, introduction, digestion, absorption and re-innovation, and realize the development of rare earth functional materials in key application fields such as new generation information technology and industrial robots. Make breakthroughs and cultivate advanced enterprises with strong innovation capabilities; carry out research on technologies and key equipment such as efficient separation and extraction of rare earth metal resources, low-cost green smelting and separation, high-end product preparation, and waste rare earth metal recovery.
2. Strengthen the construction of intellectual property and standard system
Strengthen rare earth patent analysis and strategic research, intellectual property protection mechanism research, and build an industrialization-oriented rare earth technology core patent and patent pool. Support the development of projects with independent intellectual property rights and encourage enterprises to apply for foreign patents. Give full play to the important role of rare earth enterprises, scientific research institutes, universities, academic groups and industry organizations in standard formulation, improve the domestic rare earth standard system, strictly implement mandatory standards, build a rare earth standardization information platform, and serve industry management.
Box 1 Rare Earth Public Service and Innovation Platform Construction Project
1. Public technical service platform for the rare earth industry. Continue to improve and upgrade the equipment, technology and management level of the existing technology achievements transformation platform for rare earth functional materials, focusing on solving high-end rare earth magnetic materials, catalytic materials, optical functional materials, hydrogen storage materials, light alloy structural materials, functional additives and Common key technical bottlenecks in the industrialization of applied devices; enhance the platform service capabilities of rare earth product analysis and testing, application service evaluation, etc., basically meet the needs of ultra-high purity, special physical properties of rare earth materials analysis and testing, high-efficiency rare earth permanent magnet motors, motor vehicle exhaust catalysts, industrial Evaluation requirements for denitrification devices and new energy vehicle power batteries.
2. Rare earth standard and patent service platform. Compile urgently needed standards for the rare earth industry, develop standard samples, and improve my country's rare earth standard system; build a rare earth standard search and exchange platform, strengthen the publicity and implementation of national mandatory standards, and ensure implementation; establish a global rare earth patent service platform to provide complete rare earth patent classification searches, Supply and demand information release services to promote product innovation and achievement transformation of new rare earth materials.
3. Innovation platform for rare earth industry. Relying on national laboratories in the field of rare earth science and technology, national key laboratories, national engineering (technological) centers, and industry and enterprise R&D institutions and bases, social capital is introduced to address key core technologies and major rare earth industries that are urgently needed by the country and have a far-reaching impact on future development. The equipment is researched and engineered, and one or two internationally influential rare earth industry innovation platforms have been established, focusing on the development of rare earth functional materials genome engineering research plans, basic scientific research on rare earth functions and structural materials, and cutting-edge technology research, and breakthroughs in a number of core projects Chemical process technology and equipment.
3. Promote research on the functional mechanism of rare earths
Explore the intrinsic characteristics of rare earth elements, explore new functions of rare earth materials, and expand new applications. Aiming at the frontiers of international new materials, carry out research on new materials such as rare earth magnetism, catalysis, and optical functions based on material genetic engineering, and break through a number of new rare earth materials and key green preparation technologies that are urgently needed by countries and lead future development.
Box 2 Key Projects of Rare Earth Basic Research
1. Rare earth magnetic materials. Design and development of new structure high magnetic energy product magnets, super sintered neodymium iron boron magnets, near-critical samarium cobalt magnets, high abundance rare earth permanent magnets, high performance rare earth bonded magnetic powders and magnets, and high magnetic energy product hot pressed/thermal rheological magnets ; Development of rare earth giant magnetostrictive materials and application devices, new magnetic refrigeration materials and devices, rare earth high-frequency materials, and low-cost lanthanum iron-based oxide permanent magnet materials.
2. Rare earth optical functional materials. High-performance scintillation detectors, new optical functional crystals and ceramic luminescent materials for laser displays, OLED luminescent materials and their film technology; white LED luminescent materials for high-end displays and full-spectrum lighting; up-conversion luminescent materials for solar cells; biological New luminescent materials for imaging and thin-film light imaging; rare earth temperature-sensitive and pressure-sensitive environmental detection luminescent materials; new rare earth long afterglow materials and their biological codes; new rare earth LED luminescent materials and devices.
3. Rare earth hydrogen storage materials. High-capacity new rare earth hydrogen storage materials and their application technologies in new energy storage, fuel cell hydrogen sources, solar thermal power generation and heat storage systems.
4. Rare earth catalytic materials. Multi-component composite, multi-functional integrated rare earth catalyst system, new rare earth molecular sieve catalyst and its application technology; wide temperature window, low ignition temperature, long life rare earth catalytic material and its oxygen storage material; nano rare earth catalytic new material and fuel Battery catalysts; rare earth catalysts and application technologies for the catalytic synthesis of clean liquid fuels with light rare earths such as coal, natural gas and biomass.
5. Rare earth alloy materials. Application technology of high-strength, high-toughness, corrosion-resistant and heat-resistant rare earth alloy materials in the fields of aerospace, rail transit, ship and ocean engineering, electronic information; processing technology of large-size, thin-wall rare earth light alloys.
6. Green preparation technology of high-purity rare earth materials. New methods and key technologies for high-efficiency extraction and separation of new rare earths, closed-circuit recycling technology for materials in the preparation of rare earths; preparation methods and key technologies for ultra-high purity rare earth materials.
7. Research on the basic theory of rare earths. Promote genetic engineering research of rare earth materials, especially strengthening basic research on high-throughput simulation calculations of rare earth materials, structural optimization and functional development of rare earth materials; rare earth electronic structure-physical properties correlation, in-depth understanding of 4f electronic properties, new magnetism, optics, etc. Phenomenon research.
(3) Promote intensive and high-end development, adjust and optimize the structure
1. Promote the intensive development of rare earths
Continue to implement the strategy of a large group, further promote the intensive production of rare earth mining, smelting separation, and comprehensive utilization of resources, and incorporate mining, smelting separation and comprehensive utilization of resources into the management of the six groups, and realize the centralized production, management, and process reengineering of rare earths . Improve the inter-group coordination mechanism, strengthen industry self-discipline, maintain market order, maintain a balance between supply and demand, and assume social responsibility. Support the group to expand the application industry and enhance its core competitiveness. Support the construction of "China's Rare Gold Valley" in Ganzhou, Jiangxi, promote the transformation and upgrading of key rare earth resource real estate industries such as Baotou, Fujian Longyan, and Sichuan Liangshan, extend the industrial chain, and increase the added value of products.
2. Promote high-value applications of rare earth materials
Accelerate the development of high-performance rare earth magnetism, hydrogen storage, crystals, luminescence, high frequency and other new materials, improve the guarantee capabilities of key rare earth materials and parts, and cultivate rare earths in aerospace, rail transit, marine engineering, industrial robots, high-end CNC machine tools, and medical The application of equipment and other fields will give play to the supporting role of rare earth materials in the construction of digital, intelligent, and networked in the future social development.
Box 3 Rare Earth High-value Utilization Project
1. Ultra-high purity rare earth metals and their compounds. Develop preparation technology and mass production equipment for deep-processed products such as ultra-high-purity rare earth metals and their targets, and develop ultra-high-purity and special rare earth compound materials and large-scale preparation technologies and equipment to meet high-end electronic devices and chips, functional crystals, and integration Circuits, infrared detection, fuel cells, special alloys, ceramic capacitors and other application requirements.
2. High-end rare earth functional crystal. Develop high-energy and high-time resolution rare earth scintillation crystals, and develop high-power and high-energy rare earth laser crystals to meet the application requirements of fiber lasers, PET-CT, and amorphous silicon TFT flat-panel detectors.
3. High-performance rare earth magnetic materials. Develop high comprehensive performance rare earth permanent magnets to meet the application needs of aerospace, rail transit, new energy vehicles, industrial robots, medical equipment, etc.; develop high-stability hot-pressed and bonded rare earth permanent magnets, and develop high-performance radial rare earth permanent magnet rings , To meet the application needs of servo motors, automotive steering assist systems, gyroscopes, micro motors, etc.
4. High-performance rare earth luminescent materials. Develop high-performance rare earth luminescent materials and devices to meet the needs of high-energy density excitation light sources, full-spectrum lighting, and wide-color gamut high-definition display applications; develop high-performance biological agricultural lighting materials and devices to meet the needs of photophysiological processes such as plant photosynthesis, and achieve Demonstration applications in agricultural greenhouses and plant factories.
5. Rare earth energy storage materials. Develop high-capacity rare earth energy storage materials and devices, rare earth metal hydride high-temperature heat storage materials and devices for solar thermal power generation, develop hydrogen storage energy packages; promote high-performance rare-earth nickel hydrogen with wide temperature range, high specific capacity, and low self-discharge Power batteries meet the needs of wind power, solar power, new energy vehicles, etc.
6. Rare earth polishing materials. Develop high-performance rare-earth polishing powder and rare-earth polishing liquid, the products reach or approach the international advanced level, and meet the application requirements of polishing liquid crystal, silicon wafer, high-grade glass substrate and so on.
7. Rare earth light alloy materials. Develop high-strength and high-toughness rare-earth light alloy materials and processing equipment to meet the application needs of aerospace, rail transit, and electronic information.
3. Realize the coordinated development of upstream and downstream industries
Extend the industrial chain downstream and promote the deep processing and application industries of rare earth magnetic materials-permanent magnet motors, rare earth luminescent materials-LED display devices, rare earth catalytic materials-industrial kiln denitration functional devices, rare earth alloy materials-automobiles and aerospace parts Integrated development, forming a raw material supply system that meets the needs of terminal applications, and realizing the coordinated development of the upstream and downstream of the industrial chain. Guided by the needs of terminal applications such as industrial robots, energy conservation and environmental protection, new energy vehicles, etc., encourage downstream companies to participate in the research and development of new rare earth materials, strengthen the close connection between rare earths and application industries, develop rare earth functional components and parts with independent intellectual property rights, and improve rare earths The level of research and development and production of functional materials and components has realized the optimization and upgrading of the entire industry chain of rare earths.
(4) Accelerate the green and intelligent transformation, and build a circular economy
1. Promote the green transformation of upstream industries
Vigorously research and develop new technologies and key equipment for green and high-efficiency mining and separation of rare earth resources, as well as key equipment, and increase the integration of green and efficient leaching and extraction of ionic rare earth ore, and the separation and purification of low-carbon, low-salt and ammonia-free nitrogen. Promote efforts to accelerate the optimization and upgrading of enterprise production technology and process equipment, further improve the technical level of production and environmental protection, reduce energy consumption and material consumption, realize zero discharge of waste water and waste resource utilization, and strict occupational health protection management. Develop a circular economy, strengthen the comprehensive utilization of tailings resources and associated resources, develop complete sets of technologies for the reuse of waste rare earth products, establish a sound recovery system, improve the rare earth recycling system, and improve the comprehensive utilization of rare earth resources.
Box 4 Rare Earth Green Upgrade Project
1. Green and efficient mining of southern ion-type rare earth mines. Carrying out research on leaching technology and engineering technology of ion ore under complex geological conditions, research on efficient recovery and recycling technology of leachate and supporting equipment, research on high-efficiency green environmental protection leaching agent and environmental impact assessment, mine wastewater treatment and development of high-efficiency recovery technology for trace rare earths, The development of new leaching models and ecological restoration engineering technology, the research and formulation of mining standards and technical specifications, the application and promotion of integrated green and efficient leaching and extraction technology for ionic rare earth ore, improve the recovery rate of rare earths, and solve the problem of water pollution in mining areas.
2. Rare earth green and high-efficiency beneficiation process and equipment. Develop new beneficiation reagents, green and efficient separation technology and equipment for rare earth ore, and improve the recovery rate of rare earth ore beneficiation; develop new extractants, promote the priority separation technology of high-abundance rare earth elements; develop efficient and clean extraction technology for complex low-grade rare earth resources, and develop low salt Low-carbon, non-ammonia-nitrogen rare earth smelting and separation technology and equipment; aiming at zero emissions, full recovery, reuse, and resource utilization, promote smelting separation wastewater full-cycle recovery treatment technology, acid, alkali, salt and CO2 material recycling technology and equipment .
3. Comprehensive utilization of rare earth resources. Develop comprehensive recycling technologies for rare earth associated resources such as niobium and fluorine, and green and efficient recycling of rare earth secondary resources, to achieve green and efficient comprehensive utilization of resources, and form engineering demonstrations; formulate relevant technical standards and industrial specifications, and incorporate recycled rare earth elements into production Total amount control management.
4. High-value utilization of rare earth production waste residue. Develop deep harmless treatment technology for rare earth smelting waste residue; use rare earth tailings, waste slag and waste slag from iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, and power plants as raw materials to develop low-cost, high-hardness, corrosion-resistant, high-wear, high-strength structural materials and high performance Functional materials meet the special application needs of metallurgy, electric power and other industries. While solving the high-value utilization of rare earth waste slag, it drives and improves the treatment of environmental pollution by tailings waste slag.
2. Speed up intelligent transformation
Support the construction of the basic database of rare earth mineral resources, rare earth materials and production processes, realize centralized management of data and improve the enterprise ERP system; build an intelligent control system for the production process, establish enterprise production and operation ledger, production monitoring and scheduling digital management system, and safety monitoring system , To realize the digitalization and intelligence of rare earth material production and operation management business. Support rare earth smelting and separation enterprises to build rare earth production process data collection and management control systems to realize automatic collection and online detection of production process data; establish production process control models and product identification codes to realize online fault diagnosis of equipment and processes and key operations Intelligent control, improve product quality stability, save energy and reduce consumption, reduce environmental pollution, and promote the digitization of rare earth smelting and separation and rare earth material production processes, the intelligentization of main equipment, the optimization of production processes, and the remote service of services.
Box 5 In-depth integration of the two technologies in the rare earth industry
1. Digital mines of rare earths. Build a basic database and data sharing platform for mining resources and production of rare earth mining enterprises to realize centralized management of data and visualization of resources; build an intelligent control system for the production process to improve the operation automation, control intelligence, and management information of the mining and processing production process Level: Establish a mine communication system, establish an enterprise production and operation account, a digital management system for production monitoring and scheduling, and a safety monitoring system to realize the digitalization of the main operation and management business of the mine.
2. Smart plant for rare earth smelting and separation. Establish a production process data collection and management system for rare earth smelting and separation enterprises, and establish a real-time production account database to realize automatic collection and online detection of production process data; implement real-time detection and online parameter adjustment of the smelting separation process to improve process control and production efficiency , Improve rare earth recovery rate and product quality.
3. Intelligent workshop for rare earth metals and alloys. Develop rare earth metal and alloy production automation equipment to realize automatic collection, online detection and intelligent control of production process data; develop high-efficiency and clean rare-earth metal vacuum smelting equipment, large-scale high-efficiency energy-saving rare-earth metal and alloy molten salt electrolysis complete equipment, based on the industrial Internet of Things Realize the integration of workshop management and control.
4. Intelligent manufacturing of high-end rare earth materials and devices. Support high-end rare earth material and device manufacturers to update and upgrade process equipment, realize full automation of the production process, and improve product quality stability; establish an equipment information system to realize online information collection and intelligent control of equipment operation and performance parameters; construct manufacturing information The management system covers order tracking, production planning, process control, manufacturing, logistics and warehousing, quality inspection and other processes, realizes multi-faceted and full-process data model analysis of the production process, and establishes high-end rare earth material automation and digital factory demonstrations.
3. Expand the green application of rare earths
Efforts will be made to expand the application of high-abundance elements such as lanthanum, cerium and yttrium in environmental protection fields such as industrial energy conservation, motor vehicle exhaust purification, industrial kiln exhaust gas denitration, and strengthen the application research of rare earth steel and lightweight materials such as aluminum and magnesium alloys. Carry out the development and industrialization of functional materials such as rare earth special glass, yttrium-zirconium ceramics, polishing agents, chemical additives, sewage treatment agents, and coatings. Develop technologies for reducing terbium, dysprosium and lanthanum, cerium, yttrium instead of praseodymium and neodymium, develop low-cost rare earth magnetic materials, promote the industrialization of cerium (or cerium-rich) magnets, and expand their applications in electric motors and other fields.
Box 6 Rare Earth Green Application Project
1. Rare earth catalytic materials. Develop rare earth cerium-based SCR catalytic materials, increase rare earth denitration catalysts to replace vanadium-titanium denitrification catalysts, realize denitrification applications in steel, cement, glass and other production fields, and meet industrial denitrification requirements in the thermal power industry; develop automotive exhaust gas purification catalysts that meet national VI standards , Oxygen storage materials and catalytic system integration technology, development of related industrialization technology and equipment; research and development of high-performance SCR, DOC, CDPF catalytic materials, improve the level of exhaust purification technology of diesel vehicles, construction machinery, agricultural machinery and motorcycles; develop high performance Organic waste gas VOCs elimination combustion catalyst technology, natural gas catalytic combustion high-temperature catalyst and application engineering technology to achieve application demonstrations in industrial boilers, gas turbines, etc.; development of high hydrothermal stability, adjustable cracking activity and hydrogen transfer activity, vanadium resistance A new high-performance FCC catalyst with strong alkali nitrogen toxicity.
2. Rare earth ceramic materials. Develop high-performance rare earth zirconium-based ceramic materials to meet the needs of high-end applications such as oxygen sensors, fuel cells, electronic information, and biomedical applications.
3. Rare earth alloy materials. Develop high-performance, low-cost rare earth special steels, rare earth cast irons, rare earth aluminum alloys, rare earth magnesium alloys, etc., to improve material properties and meet the structural material needs of high-end CNC machine tools, aerospace, rail transit, shipbuilding and ocean engineering, automobiles, etc. .
4. Rare earth additives and pigments. Develop rare earth functional additives for high-performance polymer materials, heavy metal ion adsorbents, high-efficiency water treatment agents, environmental protection pigments, etc., to meet the application needs of high-end building materials, sewage treatment, plastics, and rubber.
5. Low-cost rare earth magnetic materials. Develop low-cost, high-stability rare earth permanent magnets, high cerium rare earth permanent magnets, high lanthanum rare earth permanent magnets. The content of Nd, Dy, and Tb is reduced by 20%, and the substitution of cerium or lanthanum is greater than 25%. The performance meets the requirements of conventional motors, audio equipment, Application requirements such as oil fields and mines.
(5) Promote the use of overseas resources and strengthen international cooperation
1. Strengthen international cooperation on rare earths
Promote international production capacity cooperation, and strengthen the market voice of my country's rare earth enterprises through measures such as policy linkage and industry self-discipline. Give full play to the advantages of technology, talents, and capital to promote rare earth companies to go global and cooperate in the development of overseas resources and deep processing of products. Encourage rare earth companies to cooperate with overseas new material companies and technology research and development institutions to enhance their international operations capabilities. Introduce foreign professionals, advanced technology and management experience, and guide foreign investment in rare earth environmental governance, waste product recycling and reuse, high-end applications and device manufacturing industries.
2. Promote the internationalization of rare earth standards
Focusing on the transformation and upgrading of the rare earth industry, strengthen the formulation of key rare earth standards, give full play to the role of enterprises, research institutions and intermediary organizations, enhance the influence of China's rare earth standards, promote Chinese standards to go global, and realize the convergence of domestic rare earth standards with international standards.
(6) Build a new value chain to achieve mutual benefit and win-win
1. Promote the transformation and upgrading of the resource and real estate industry
Improve the income distribution mechanism of rare earth development, increase the support of resource income in the infrastructure construction of resources and the cultivation of alternative industries, promote poverty alleviation in old revolutionary areas, poverty-stricken areas, and ethnic minority areas in resources, and improve the production and living conditions of local residents. Encourage enterprises to develop intensive processing near rare earth resources, extend from material processing and production to component manufacturing, semi-finished products and production services, increase the added value of products, and promote the transformation and upgrading of resource and real estate industries.
2. Build a new value chain
Strengthen the structural reform of the supply side of rare earths, stabilize the supply-demand relationship, guide price expectations, promote and expand the application demand of rare earths in downstream fields such as energy saving, environmental protection and home appliances, and realize the sharing of upstream and downstream benefits and coordinated development. With capital and technology as the link, we will integrate the middle and high-end application industry chain through listing, capital increase, mergers and acquisitions, and cultivate new application markets. Guide qualified rare earth enterprises to develop and produce new dual-use rare earth materials for both military and civilian use, and promote the sharing of military and civilian resources in the field of rare earth new materials. Strengthen the promotion of branded rare earth products, guide enterprises to enhance brand awareness, and support enterprises to strive for famous trademarks and international brands. Focusing on the "Internet +" development strategy, strengthen the construction of e-commerce platforms for rare earth products.
Fourth, safeguard measures
(1) Play the role of coordination mechanism
Further play the role of the rare metals inter-ministerial coordination mechanism, continue to implement the requirements of the "Several Opinions," coordinate research and resolution of major cross-departmental and cross-regional issues, and strengthen the coordination and connection of development plans for the rare earth industry with policies on science and technology, fiscal and taxation, land resources, and finance , Improve industry statistical monitoring and information disclosure systems. Give play to the role of intermediary organizations such as associations and societies, and guide member units to strengthen self-discipline, standardize operations, and orderly compete.
(2) Improve the system of policies and regulations
Promote the promulgation of the “Regulations on the Management of Rare Metals”, formulate corresponding rare earth management rules, improve supporting regulations, clarify the responsibilities of local governments and departments, and form a complete legal system for the management of the rare earth industry. Establish a traceability system for rare earth products, covering production, distribution, and export, and strictly investigate and deal with various violations of laws and regulations. Improve rare earth mining, production volume control management methods, rare earth industry standard conditions and other related policies, and continue to strictly enforce rare earth mining and production volume control management. Establish and improve a rare earth product reserve system that complements government reserves and corporate reserves to stabilize market prices and ensure the security of national strategic resources. Establish a social responsibility reporting system and a credit blacklist system for rare earth export enterprises.
(3) Increase fiscal and taxation support
Coordinate and support rare earth technology research and development through channels such as the central fiscal science and technology plan (special projects, funds, etc.), and implement the pre-tax deduction policy for enterprise research and development expenses. Make full use of existing funding channels such as special industrial transformation and upgrading projects to support qualified rare earth high-end applications and intelligent manufacturing projects, and establish a reserve project database, industry database and rare earth expert database. Research on the "first batch" of new materials application insurance compensation mechanism, and support the application and promotion of qualified rare earth new materials. Strive for the central government to continue to carry out pilot projects for the transformation and upgrading of rare earth industries in key resource areas, build characteristic industrial bases, and cultivate regional advantageous industries.
(4) Improve the investment and financing guarantee mechanism
Strengthen the cooperation between the government, enterprises, universities, scientific research institutes and financial institutions, and gradually form a supporting and promoting system of "government, industry, education, research and financing". Encourage the government and private capital to establish rare earth industry development funds, guide social resources to invest in the application of new rare earth materials, and support innovative and growing rare earth enterprises. Encourage financial institutions to innovate credit products and services that meet the development characteristics of the rare earth industry, and increase credit support reasonably. Support qualified rare earth companies to go public and raise funds and issue bonds.
(5) Strengthening market supervision
Improve the supervision system of the whole industry chain of rare earths, and realize the whole process and multi-dimensional supervision of rare earth products. Give full play to the role of local governments, earnestly assume the responsibility of the main body of supervision, and normalize the rectification of the rare earth market. Establish a “black and white” list system for rare earth companies, implement industry-specific dynamic management, strengthen supervision during and after the event, and promptly revoke the announcement qualifications for companies that have over-planned production and violated regulatory conditions, and promote inter-departmental policy linkages. Companies that violate laws and regulations and inefficient production capacity exit.
(6) Strengthen foreign exchanges and cooperation
Encourage domestic enterprises to use their own technology and management advantages, as well as patents, standards and other technical means to carry out cooperation in foreign rare earth resource development and material deep processing projects. Enhance communication between governments and enterprises, strengthen coordination of "going out" enterprises, and improve the quality of Sino-foreign cooperation projects. Strengthen coordination with international financial institutions and increase support for international cooperative financing of rare earth enterprises.
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