Rare earth is an important non-renewable strategic resource and an indispensable key element for transforming traditional industries, developing emerging industries and national defense technology industry. With the continuous deepening of the world's scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation, the application value of rare earths in national economic and social development will be further enhanced. According to the "Outline of the Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of the People's Republic of China" and the overall deployment of "Made in China 2025" and "Several Opinions of the State Council on Promoting the Sustainable and Healthy Development of the Rare Earth Industry" (Guo Fa  No. 12 , hereinafter referred to as "Several Opinions"), in order to scientifically guide the development of the rare earth industry and promote the rare earth industry as a whole to enter the middle and high end, this plan is specially prepared.
1. Development basis
(1) Current status of the industry
Since the promulgation of the "Several Opinions" in 2011, the rare earth industry has made positive progress in resource protection, industrial structure adjustment, application industry development, innovation capability improvement, and management system construction, and the quality of industry development has reached a new level.
1. A breakthrough has been made in the adjustment of industrial structure. First, the industrial concentration has been greatly improved. The number of rare earth smelting and separation enterprises has been reduced from 99 to 59, and the pattern of 6 rare earth groups dominating the market has initially formed, integrating 22 of the 23 rare earth mines and 54 of the 59 smelting and separation enterprises in the country, reversing the "many, Small and scattered, the smelting and separation capacity has been reduced from 400,000 tons to 300,000 tons. The second is to further optimize the product structure. The industrial structure dominated by resource mining, smelting and separation, and primary product processing has accelerated to a direction dominated by mid-to-high-end materials and applied products. More than 80% of primary processed products are used to manufacture magnetism, catalysis, hydrogen storage, luminescence, Polishing and other functional materials. Third, the industrial layout tends to be reasonable. Build rare earth resource mining, smelting and separation bases in Baotou, Ganzhou, Liangshan, Longyan, etc. around resource areas, with production capacity accounting for more than 90% and 60% of the country respectively; build rare earth application industrial bases in Ningbo, Xiamen, Chengdu, Baotou, etc. around consumer markets, rare earth magnetic The industrial scale of catalysis, luminescent materials accounted for more than 70%, 50%, and 45% of the country respectively.
2. The development of the application industry has achieved remarkable results. First, the scale of the application industry continues to expand. The output of rare earth magnetic and catalytic materials has an average annual growth rate of more than 15%, and the output of rare earth magnetic, luminescent, hydrogen storage and other main functional materials accounts for more than 70% of the global total. Second, the product performance has been greatly improved. The comprehensive performance (magnetic energy product + coercive force) of rare earth magnetic materials has been increased from 60 to over 70, which basically meets the needs of electric vehicles and wind power generation equipment. The catalytic converter for automobile exhaust purification has reached the National V standard, and the self-sufficiency rate of domestic petroleum cracking catalysts has exceeded 90%. , The luminous efficiency of LED devices is increased from 90 lumens/watt to more than 150 lumens/watt. The third is to achieve a number of breakthrough results. Domestic automobile exhaust catalysts and devices have entered the world's well-known enterprises. Rare earth denitrification catalysts have achieved industrial demonstration applications in the treatment of industrial kilns such as electric power, steel, and glass. High-end rare earth laser crystals, scintillation crystals, ultra-high-purity rare earth metals and compounds, Breakthroughs have been made in key preparation technologies such as high-performance rare earth alloys, and the products basically meet the urgent needs of key projects and national defense science and industry.
3. The ability of sustainable development has been further improved. First, the ability to innovate has been greatly improved. The proportion of enterprise research and development expenses in operating income has increased from 2% to more than 3%, and 7 rare earth public technology service platforms integrating technology research and development, industrial transformation, analysis, testing, and application evaluation have been established, and Baiyun Obo rare earth resources research and comprehensive utilization have been newly established. , rare earth permanent magnet materials and other key laboratories, and set up a strategic alliance for technological innovation of advanced rare earth materials industry. Second, the strength of enterprises has been significantly enhanced. A number of well-known rare earth new material enterprises have been formed, and the equipment, technology and management level have been greatly improved. Third, the level of environmental protection has been significantly improved. The entire industry has invested more than 8 billion yuan in environmental protection transformation. 85 enterprises have passed the rare earth environmental protection inspection, and 45 enterprises have passed the access to the rare earth industry. The level of green production of rare earth has been greatly improved.
4. The industry management system is basically sound. One is to improve the industry management institutions. An inter-ministerial coordination mechanism for rare metals led by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology was established, a rare earth office was established, and the China Rare Earth Industry Association was established; local rare earth offices and corresponding coordination agencies were established in major rare earth producing areas. The second is to formulate an industry management system. Management systems such as the total control plan for rare earth mining and production, industry norms, environmental protection inspections, special value-added tax invoices, resource taxes, strategic reserves, and special fiscal projects for industrial adjustment and upgrading have been introduced and implemented. The third is that local regulatory responsibilities have been implemented, and Ganzhou, Jiangxi, Longyan, Fujian and other places have established city, county and township network management systems. Fourth, a relatively complete rare earth technology standard system has been established, covering the entire industrial chain of rare earth mining, smelting, separation, and processing. The standards are implemented in conjunction with relevant national policies, effectively regulating rare earth production and trade activities.
5. Rare earth violations of laws and regulations have been curbed. The first is to continue to crack down on rare earth violations. Relevant departments coordinated and cooperated to carry out several special campaigns to crack down on violations of laws and regulations in the rare earth industry. A total of 113 cases of violations of laws and regulations were investigated and dealt with, 14 illegal mining sites were destroyed, 28 production enterprises were shut down, 19 trading enterprises were punished, and illegal and smuggling were seized. More than 36,000 tons of rare earth mineral products were fined 230 million yuan. Second, the Baiyun Obo mining area and tailings pond in Baotou City, Inner Mongolia have achieved fully enclosed management; key resource areas such as Ganzhou in Jiangxi Province and Liangshan in Sichuan Province have built rare earth mining area protection facilities and mining supervision systems. The third is to build a traceability system for rare earth products. In accordance with the requirements of the "Opinions of the General Office of the State Council on Accelerating the Construction of the Traceability System for Important Products" (Guobanfa  No. 95), the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology has carried out the construction of a traceability system for rare earth products to realize the separation from rare earth mining and smelting (including Comprehensive utilization of resources) to product traceability management in the whole process of circulation and export.
At present, there are still some problems in the development of my country's rare earth industry, which are mainly manifested in: resource protection still needs to be strengthened, problems such as private mining and illegal mining, trading and processing of illegal rare earth mineral products, and illegal production occur from time to time; continuous innovation ability is not strong, and core patents are controlled by others , the overall strength of basic research needs to be improved; structural contradictions are still prominent, the upstream smelting and separation capacity is overcapacity, the downstream high-end application products are relatively insufficient, and the application of elements is unbalanced; the relevant legal system is still incomplete, and some local governments have not yet fully fulfilled their regulatory responsibilities.
(2) Facing the situation
The "13th Five-Year Plan" is a critical period for the transformation and upgrading of the rare earth industry and the improvement of development quality and efficiency. On the whole, the opportunities for the development of my country's rare earth industry outweigh the challenges.
Main opportunities for development: First, the strategic position of rare earth is more prominent. Major industrialized countries attach great importance to the strategic value of rare earths and the development and application of related fields. With the continuous deepening of the world's technological revolution and industrial transformation, its strategic position and role will be further highlighted. Second, the sustainable development strategy creates new space for industrial development. The 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China put forward the "Beautiful China" strategy, promoting the construction of ecological civilization from the national level as a whole, and realizing green, circular and low-carbon development. Rare earths have broad application prospects in the fields of energy saving and environmental protection, and the market demand will increase significantly. Third, "Made in China 2025" has injected new momentum into the development of the rare earth industry. The new generation of information technology industry proposed by "Made in China 2025", high-end CNC machine tools and robots, aerospace equipment, marine engineering equipment and high-tech ships, advanced rail transit equipment, energy-saving and new energy vehicles, electric power equipment, agricultural machinery equipment, new materials The ten key fields, such as biomedicine, high-performance medical devices, etc., are highly related to the rare earth industry, and put forward higher requirements for the guarantee capability and quality performance of rare earth materials, which will drive the rapid development of the rare earth industry. Fourth, a diversified pattern of rare earth supply has basically taken shape. Key resource countries such as the United States, Australia, Canada, Russia, South Africa, Chile, and Brazil have launched a number of rare earth resource development projects, initially formed mining and separation processing capabilities, and eased the pressure on my country's resource supply.
The main challenges faced: First, the production capacity of rare earth primary products is excessive, illegal mining and illegal production have been banned repeatedly, resulting in low prices of rare earth products, which do not reflect the value of scarce resources. It is urgent to further standardize the industry order, strictly control the increase, and optimize the processing of rare earth primary products stock, and eliminate outdated production capacity. Second, my country's rare earth industry as a whole is at the middle and low end of the world's rare earth industry chain. There is still a large gap between high-end materials and devices and advanced countries, lack of independent intellectual property rights technology, and the industry as a whole needs to be driven by low-cost resources and factor inputs, and to expand new industries. Innovation-driven transformation of technology, new products and effective supply, optimize the industrial structure, and focus on the development of rare earth high-end materials and device industries. The third is that the level of clean production cannot meet the requirements of the national ecological civilization construction. The pressure of safety and environmental protection and the constraints of factor costs in the development of the industry are becoming increasingly prominent. The tasks of supply-side structural reform, quality improvement and efficiency improvement, and green and sustainable development are arduous.
2. General idea
(1) Guiding ideology
Fully implement the spirit of the 18th CPC National Congress and the 3rd, 4th, and 5th Plenary Sessions of the 18th CPC Central Committee, firmly establish and implement the development concepts of innovation, coordination, green, openness, and sharing, and thoroughly implement "Made in China 2025", strategic National strategies such as emerging industries, driven by innovation, continue to promote supply-side structural reforms, strengthen the protection of rare earth strategic resources, standardize the order of mining and production of rare earth resources, effectively resolve excess capacity in smelting and separation and low-end applications, improve the level of intelligent manufacturing, and expand The high-end application of rare earths will improve the quality and efficiency of industry development, and give full play to the strategic value and supporting role of rare earths.
(2) Basic principles
Adhere to innovation and development. With scientific and technological innovation as the core, strengthen the dominant position of the enterprise, improve the innovation system combining "government, industry, learning, research and application", accelerate the process of integration of industrialization and industrialization, break through the constraints of key core technologies, and create a number of iconic products and brands.
Adhere to coordinated development. Driven by market demand, optimize the industrial structure, expand rare earth application fields, strengthen the connection between new rare earth materials, devices and end application markets, and realize the simultaneous transformation and upgrading of upstream and downstream industries; strengthen information sharing, improve the policy and regulatory system, and improve national and local policies. Compatibility of measures.
Adhere to green development. Accelerate the research and development of comprehensive resource utilization technologies and clean production transformation, promote green and low-carbon development models, develop circular economy, reduce the generation and discharge of pollutants, improve the utilization rate of resources and energy, and expand the application of rare earth materials in the field of energy conservation and environmental protection.
Adhere to open development. Coordinate domestic and international "two resources, two markets", promote investment and intelligence introduction, support qualified enterprises to carry out overseas mineral resource development and application industry cooperation, promote the internationalization of China's rare earth standards, and improve international competitiveness.
Adhere to shared development. Strengthen the protection of rare earth resources, ensure the long-term development needs of the country, promote the transformation and upgrading of the real estate industry of rare earth resources, realize the organic unity of corporate interests, local economic development and national strategic will, maintain the balance between market supply and demand, realize high-value utilization, and promote rare earth industry and Collaborative development of related industries.
(3) Development goals
By 2020, a new pattern of rare earth industry will be formed featuring rational development, orderly production, efficient utilization, scientific and technological innovation, and coordinated development. strategic value.
1. Significantly improved innovation capability. Build a number of innovation centers with first-class technology and advanced equipment, and achieve a number of breakthrough results. High-end rare earth functional materials and devices with independent intellectual property rights have reached or approached the international advanced level. The proportion of research and development expenses of key enterprises in operating income will be increased from 3% to 5%.
2. The degree of intensification has been significantly improved. The six major rare earth groups have completed the integration of all rare earth mining, smelting and separation, and comprehensive utilization of resources in the country, forming a scientific and standardized modern corporate governance structure. The ability to protect rare earth resources has been further improved, and the entire industry has achieved green transformation, effectively ensuring the security of national strategic resources.
3. The supporting capacity is significantly enhanced. More than 80% of the key high-end rare earth functional materials and devices basically meet the application needs of the new generation of information technology, high-end equipment, new energy vehicles, high-performance medical equipment, energy conservation and environmental protection, and national defense science and industry.
4. Strengthen industry management according to law. The industry management laws and regulations are basically sound, departmental cooperation has been further strengthened, and management systems such as production volume control plans and industry standard conditions have been effectively implemented.
5. The application industry continues to develop. To meet the needs of the ten key areas of "Made in China 2025" as the goal, the output of major rare earth functional materials will increase by more than 15% annually, and the proportion of medium and high-end rare earth functional materials will increase significantly. And the ranks of industrial powerhouses.
3. Key tasks
(1) Strengthen resource and ecological protection and promote sustainable development
1. Strengthen the management of rare earth resources
Strengthen the country's unified planning for the exploration, development, and utilization of rare earth resources, rationally control the total amount of mining and production according to the resource situation and market demand, and ensure national economic security and long-term development needs. By 2020, the annual mining volume of rare earths will be controlled at 140,000 tons within. Severely crack down on violations of laws and regulations in rare earth production, protect while developing, and develop while protecting. Strict market access system, no new mining rights except for six large rare earth enterprise groups. Continue to support key resource areas such as Baotou in Inner Mongolia, Liangshan in Sichuan, Ganzhou in Jiangxi, and Longyan in Fujian to improve resource protection and monitoring facilities in mining areas, and strengthen technical transformation of rare earth mining and dressing projects. Strengthen the reserves and protection of proven large and medium-sized mineral resources, link up with the "National Mineral Resources Planning (2016-2020)", delineate a number of national planning mining areas, implement unified planning, large-scale development, focus on supervision, and promote high-quality Resource protection and rational utilization.
2. Strengthen the ecological protection of resource areas
Strictly implement national and local pollutant discharge standards, strictly review construction projects and enterprise environmental impact assessment, and resolutely eliminate backward production capacity. Promote the adoption of new mining technologies and processes, implement the deposit system and economic responsibilities for the protection and restoration of the geological environment of rare earth mines, strengthen the treatment, disposal and comprehensive utilization of tailings ponds, and implement the production sewage permit system; promote the integration of ion-type rare earth ore leaching and extraction , New technologies for smelting and separation pollution prevention and control, and promote clean production in the industry. Establish a rare earth green development mechanism, implement industry standard conditions, and fully implement mandatory clean production audits in the rare earth industry.
3. Management of rare earth elements by function
Divide rare earth elements into three categories: strategic, critical and general according to the degree of resource scarcity and functional development, implement element classification management, and realize the matching of element value and economic benefits. Strengthen strategic and key product reserves, and improve the rare earth reserve system. Strengthen the management of the entire industrial chain of mining, production, and circulation of medium and heavy rare earth elements, and resolutely crack down on illegal production of rare earth elements, export smuggling, and tax evasion.
(2) Support innovation system and capacity building, and cultivate new momentum of the industry
1. Improve the industry innovation system
Give full play to the core leading role of scientific and technological innovation, improve the rare earth innovation system with enterprises as the main body, market-oriented, and "government-industry-university-research-application" combination, and promote the construction of national and industry innovation centers and service platforms. Aim at the commanding heights of national strategies and future industrial development such as "Made in China 2025" and strategic emerging industries, carry out original innovation, integrated innovation, and re-innovation through introduction, digestion and absorption, and realize the application of rare earth functional materials in key application fields such as new generation information technology and industrial robots. Make breakthroughs and cultivate advanced enterprises with strong innovation capabilities; carry out research on technologies and key equipment such as efficient separation and extraction of rare earth metal resources, low-cost green smelting and separation, high-end product preparation, and recycling of waste rare earth metals.
2. Strengthen the construction of intellectual property rights and standard systems
Strengthen rare earth patent analysis and strategic research, intellectual property protection mechanism research, and build industrialization-oriented rare earth technology core patents and patent pools. Support the development of projects with independent intellectual property rights, and encourage enterprises to apply for foreign patents. Give play to the important role of rare earth enterprises, scientific research institutes, universities, academic groups and industry organizations in the formulation of standards, improve the domestic standard system for rare earths, strictly enforce mandatory standards, build a rare earth standardization information platform, and serve industry management.
Column 1 Rare Earth Public Service and Innovation Platform Construction Project
1. Public technical service platform for the rare earth industry. Continue to improve and upgrade the equipment, technology and management level of the existing transformation platform for rare earth functional materials, focusing on high-end rare earth magnetic materials, catalytic materials, optical functional materials, hydrogen storage materials, light alloy structural materials, functional additives and Common key technical bottlenecks in the industrialization of application devices; improve platform service capabilities such as rare earth product analysis and testing, application service evaluation, etc., and basically meet the analysis and testing of ultra-high purity and special rare earth materials and high-efficiency rare earth permanent magnet motors, automotive exhaust catalysts, industrial Evaluation requirements for denitrification devices, new energy vehicle power batteries, etc.
2. Rare earth standard and patent service platform. Prepare urgently needed standards for the rare earth industry, develop standard samples, and improve my country's rare earth standard system; build a rare earth standard search and exchange platform, strengthen the publicity and implementation of national mandatory standards, and ensure implementation; establish a global rare earth patent service platform to provide comprehensive rare earth patent classification search, Supply and demand information release service to promote rare earth new material product innovation and achievement transformation.
3. Rare earth industry innovation platform. Relying on national laboratories, national key laboratories, national engineering (technology) centers, industry and enterprise R&D institutions and bases in the field of rare earth science and technology, and introducing social capital, aiming at the key core technologies and major Carry out research and development and engineering of equipment, build 1 or 2 rare earth industry innovation platforms with international influence, focus on the genome engineering research plan of rare earth functional materials, basic scientific research and cutting-edge technology research of rare earth functional and structural materials, and break through a number of core projects Chemical technology and equipment.
3. Promoting research on the functional mechanism of rare earths
Excavate the intrinsic properties of rare earth elements, explore new functions of rare earth materials, and expand new applications. Aiming at the international frontier of new materials, carry out research on new materials such as rare earth magnetism, catalysis, and optical functions based on material genetic engineering, and make breakthroughs in a number of rare earth new materials and key green preparation technologies that are urgently needed by the country and lead future development.
Column 2 Key Projects of Rare Earth Basic Research
1. Rare earth magnetic materials. Design and development of new structure high energy product magnets, super-strong sintered NdFeB magnets, near-critical samarium cobalt magnets, high-abundance rare earth permanent magnets, high performance rare earth bonded magnetic powder and magnets, high energy product hot-pressed/thermo-rheological magnets ; Development of rare-earth giant magnetostrictive materials and application devices, new magnetic refrigeration materials and devices, rare-earth high-frequency materials, and low-cost lanthanum-iron-based oxide permanent magnet materials.
2. Rare earth optical functional materials. High-performance scintillation detectors, optical functional crystals and ceramic luminescent materials for new laser displays, luminescent materials for OLEDs and their membrane technology; white LED luminescent materials for high-end displays and full-spectrum lighting; up-conversion luminescent materials for solar cells; biological New luminescent materials for imaging, thin film light transmission imaging, etc.; rare earth temperature-sensitive, pressure-sensitive and other environmental detection luminescent materials; new rare earth long afterglow materials and their biological codes; new rare earth LED luminescent materials and devices.
3. Rare earth hydrogen storage materials. New high-capacity rare-earth hydrogen storage materials and their application technologies in new energy storage, hydrogen sources for fuel cells, and heat storage systems for photothermal power generation.
4. Rare earth catalytic materials. Multi-component composite, multi-functional integrated rare earth catalyst system, new rare earth molecular sieve catalyst and its application technology; wide temperature window, low light-off temperature, long-life rare earth catalytic material and its oxygen storage material; nano rare earth catalytic new material and fuel Battery catalysts; light rare earth catalysts such as coal, natural gas and biomass to catalyze the synthesis of rare earth catalysts for clean liquid fuels and their application technologies.
5. Rare earth alloy materials. Application technology of high-strength, high-toughness, corrosion-resistant, heat-resistant rare earth alloy materials in aerospace, rail transit, shipbuilding and marine engineering, electronic information and other fields; processing technology of large-size, thin-walled rare earth light alloys.
6. Green preparation technology of high-purity rare earth materials. New methods and key technologies for high-efficiency extraction and separation of new rare earths, closed-circuit recycling technology for rare earth materials in the preparation process; preparation methods and key technologies for ultra-high-purity rare earth materials.
7. Basic theoretical research on rare earth. Promote the research on genetic engineering of rare earth materials, especially strengthen basic research on high-throughput simulation calculations of rare earth materials, structure optimization and functional development of rare earth materials; in-depth understanding of rare earth electronic structure-physical property correlation, 4f electronic properties, and new magnetism, optics, etc. Phenomena research.
(3) Promote intensive and high-end development, adjust and optimize the structure
1. Promote the intensive development of rare earth
Continue to implement the strategy of large groups, further promote the intensive production of rare earth mining, smelting and separation, and comprehensive utilization of resources, and bring mining, smelting and separation, and comprehensive utilization of resources into the management of six groups, so as to realize the centralized production, management, and process reengineering of rare earths . Improve the inter-group coordination mechanism, strengthen industry self-discipline, maintain market order, maintain a balance between supply and demand, and assume social responsibility. Support the group to expand the application industry and enhance its core competitiveness. Support the construction of "China's Rare Gold Valley" in Ganzhou, Jiangxi, promote the transformation and upgrading of key rare earth resource real estate industries such as Baotou in Inner Mongolia, Longyan in Fujian, and Liangshan in Sichuan, extend the industrial chain, and increase the added value of products.
2. Promote the high-value application of rare earth materials
Accelerate the development of new materials such as high-performance rare earth magnetism, hydrogen storage, crystal, luminescence, and high frequency, improve the support capabilities of rare earth key materials and parts, and cultivate rare earth materials in aerospace, rail transit, ocean engineering, industrial robots, high-end CNC machine tools, and medical treatment. The application of rare earth materials in the field of equipment and other fields will play a supporting role in the construction of digitalization, intelligence and networking in the future social development.
Column 3 High-value rare earth utilization projects
1. Ultra-high purity rare earth metals and their compounds. Develop preparation technology and mass production equipment for deep-processing products such as ultra-high-purity rare earth metals and their targets, and develop ultra-high-purity and special rare earth compound materials and large-scale preparation technology and equipment to meet the needs of high-end electronic devices and chips, functional crystals, and integration. Circuits, infrared detection, fuel cells, special alloys, ceramic capacitors and other application requirements.
2. High-end rare earth functional crystals. Develop high-energy and high-time-resolution rare-earth scintillation crystals, and develop high-power and high-energy rare-earth laser crystals to meet the application requirements of fiber lasers, PET-CT, and amorphous silicon TFT flat-panel detectors.
3. High performance rare earth magnetic materials. Develop high-performance rare-earth permanent magnets to meet the application requirements of aerospace, rail transit, new energy vehicles, industrial robots, and medical equipment; develop high-stability hot-pressed and bonded rare-earth permanent magnets, and develop high-performance radial rare-earth permanent magnet rings , to meet the application requirements of servo motors, automotive power steering systems, gyroscopes, and micro motors.
4. High-performance rare earth luminescent materials. Develop high-performance rare earth luminescent materials and devices to meet the needs of high-energy-density excitation light sources, full-spectrum lighting, and wide-color gamut high-definition display applications; develop high-performance bio-agricultural lighting materials and devices to meet the needs of photophysiological processes such as plant photosynthesis. Demonstration applications of agricultural greenhouses and plant factories.
5. Rare earth energy storage materials. Develop high-capacity rare earth energy storage materials and devices, rare earth metal hydride high-temperature heat storage materials and devices for solar thermal power generation, and develop hydrogen storage energy packs; promote high-performance rare earth nickel-metal hydride with wide temperature range, high specific capacity, and low self-discharge Power batteries to meet the needs of wind power, solar power, new energy vehicles, etc.
6. Rare earth polishing materials. Develop high-performance rare earth polishing powder and rare earth polishing liquid. The products reach or approach the international advanced level and meet the application requirements of liquid crystal, silicon wafer, and high-grade glass substrate polishing.
7. Rare earth light alloy materials. Develop high-strength and high-toughness rare earth light alloy materials and processing devices to meet the application needs of aerospace, rail transit, and electronic information.
3. Realize the coordinated development of upstream and downstream industries
Extend the industrial chain downstream to promote rare earth deep processing and application industries such as rare earth magnetic materials-permanent magnet motors, rare earth luminescent materials-LED display devices, rare earth catalytic materials-industrial kiln denitrification functional devices, rare earth alloy materials-automotive and aerospace parts Integrated development, forming a raw material supply system that meets the needs of terminal applications, and realizing the coordinated development of the upstream and downstream of the industrial chain. Guided by the end application needs of industrial robots, energy conservation and environmental protection, and new energy vehicles, encourage downstream enterprises to participate in the research and development of new rare earth materials, strengthen the close connection between rare earth and application industries, develop rare earth functional components and parts with independent intellectual property rights, and improve rare earth The R&D and production level of functional materials and components will realize the optimization and upgrading of the entire industry chain of rare earths.
(4) Accelerate green and intelligent transformation and build a circular economy
1. Promote the green transformation of upstream industries
Vigorously research and develop new technologies and key equipment for green and efficient mining and separation of rare earth resources and smelting and separation, increase the integration of green and efficient leaching and extraction of ionic rare earth raw ore, low-carbon, low-salt, ammonia-free separation and purification of rare earth mining, smelting and separation of new clean production processes Promote efforts to speed up the optimization and upgrading of production technology and process equipment of enterprises, further improve the technical level of production and environmental protection, reduce energy consumption and material consumption, realize zero discharge of waste water and resource utilization of waste, and strictly manage occupational health protection. Develop a circular economy, strengthen the comprehensive utilization of tailings resources and associated resources, develop a complete set of technologies for the reuse of waste rare earth products, establish and improve the recycling system, improve the rare earth recycling system, and improve the comprehensive utilization level of rare earth resources.
Column 4 Rare Earth Green Upgrading Project
1. Green and efficient mining of ion-type rare earth mines in the South. Carry out research on ion ore leaching technology and engineering technology under complex geological conditions, research on efficient recovery and recycling technology of leachate and supporting equipment, research on high-efficiency green and environmental protection ore leaching agent and environmental impact assessment, mine wastewater treatment and development of high-efficiency recovery technology of trace rare earths, The development of new leaching models and ecological restoration engineering technology, the research and formulation of mining standards and technical specifications, the application and promotion of green and efficient leaching and extraction integrated technology for ion-type rare earth raw ore, improve the recovery rate of rare earths, and solve the problem of water pollution in mining areas.
2. Rare earth green and efficient dressing and smelting technology and equipment. Develop new beneficiation reagents, rare earth ore green and efficient sorting process and equipment to improve the recovery rate of rare earth ore; develop new extraction agents and promote high-abundance rare earth element priority separation technology; research and develop efficient and clean extraction technology for complex and low-grade rare earth resources, and develop low-salt Low-carbon ammonia-nitrogen-free rare earth smelting and separation technology and equipment; with the goal of zero discharge, full recovery, reuse, and resource utilization, promote the full-cycle recovery and treatment technology of smelting and separation wastewater, and the recycling technology and equipment of materials such as acids, alkalis, salts, and CO2 .
3. Comprehensive utilization of rare earth resources. Develop the comprehensive recovery and utilization technology of valuable elements such as niobium and fluorine associated with rare earth resources and the green and efficient recycling of rare earth secondary resources, realize the green and efficient comprehensive utilization of resources, and form engineering demonstrations; formulate relevant technical standards and industrial norms, and incorporate the recovered rare earth elements into production Total control management.
4. High-value utilization of rare earth production waste residues. Develop advanced harmless treatment technology for rare earth smelting waste residues; use rare earth tailings, waste residues, and waste residues from iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, and power plants as raw materials to develop low-cost high-hardness, corrosion-resistant, high-wear-resistant, high-strength structural materials and high-performance Functional materials meet the special application needs of metallurgy, electric power and other industries. While solving the high-value utilization of rare earth waste slag, it also drives and improves the treatment of environmental pollution caused by tailings waste slag.
2. Accelerate intelligent transformation
Support the construction of basic databases for rare earth mineral resources, rare earth materials and production processes, realize centralized management of data and improve the enterprise ERP system; build an intelligent control system for the production process, establish enterprise production and operation ledgers, digital management systems for production monitoring and scheduling, and safety monitoring systems , to realize the digitization and intelligence of the production and operation management of rare earth materials. Support rare earth smelting and separation enterprises to build rare earth production process data collection and management control system to realize automatic collection and online detection of production process data; establish production process control model and product identification code to realize online fault diagnosis of equipment and processes and identification of key operations Intelligent control, improve product quality stability, save energy and reduce consumption, reduce environmental pollution, promote rare earth smelting and separation and digitalization of rare earth material production process, intelligent main equipment, production process optimization and remote service.
Column 5 Deep integration project of industrialization and industrialization in the rare earth industry
1. Rare earth digital mine. Construct the mine resource and production basic database and data sharing platform of rare earth mining enterprises to realize the centralized management of data and the visualization of resources; construct the intelligent control system of the production process to improve the operation automation, control intelligence and management informationization of the mining and selection production process level; build a mine communication system, establish an enterprise production and operation ledger, a digital management system for production monitoring and scheduling, and a safety monitoring system to realize the digitization of the main operation and management business of the mine.
2. Rare earth smelting and separation intelligent factory. Build a production process data collection and management system for rare earth smelting and separation enterprises, establish a real-time database of production ledgers, and realize automatic collection and online detection of production process data; implement real-time detection of smelting and separation processes and online parameter adjustment to improve process control level and production efficiency , Improve rare earth recovery rate and product quality.
3. Rare earth metal and alloy intelligent workshop. Develop automation equipment for rare earth metal and alloy production to realize automatic collection, online detection and intelligent control of production process data; develop high-efficiency and high-clean rare earth metal vacuum smelting equipment, large-scale high-efficiency and energy-saving rare earth metal and alloy molten salt electrolysis complete sets of equipment, based on the industrial Internet of Things Realize the integration of workshop management and control.
4. Intelligent manufacturing of high-end rare earth materials and devices. Support high-end rare earth materials and device manufacturers to update and upgrade process equipment, realize full automation of the production process, and improve product quality stability; establish an equipment information system to realize online information collection and intelligent control of equipment operation and performance parameters; build manufacturing information The management system covers order tracking, production planning, process control, processing and manufacturing, logistics and warehousing, quality inspection and other processes, realizes multi-directional and full-process data model analysis of the production process, and establishes high-end rare earth material automation and digital factory demonstrations.
3. Expand the green application of rare earth
Efforts should be made to expand the application of high-abundance elements such as lanthanum, cerium and yttrium in industrial energy conservation, motor vehicle exhaust purification, industrial kiln exhaust gas denitrification and other environmental protection fields, and strengthen the application research of rare earth steel and aluminum, magnesium alloys and other lightweight materials. Carry out R&D and industrialization of functional materials such as rare earth special glass, yttrium-zirconium ceramics, polishing agents, chemical additives, sewage treatment agents, and coatings. Develop technologies for reducing terbium-dysprosium and replacing praseodymium and neodymium with lanthanum, cerium and yttrium, developing low-cost rare earth magnetic materials, promoting the industrialization of cerium (or cerium-rich) magnets, and expanding their applications in fields such as motors.
Column 6 Rare Earth Green Application Project
1. Rare earth catalytic materials. Develop rare earth cerium-based SCR catalytic materials, increase efforts to replace vanadium-titanium denitrification catalysts with rare earth denitrification catalysts, realize denitrification applications in steel, cement, glass and other production fields, and meet the industrial denitrification requirements of the thermal power industry; develop automobile exhaust purification catalysts that meet the National VI standard , Oxygen storage materials and catalytic system integration technology, develop related industrialization technology and equipment; research and develop high-performance SCR, DOC, CDPF catalytic materials, improve the exhaust gas purification technology level of diesel vehicles, construction machinery, agricultural machinery and motorcycles; develop high-performance Organic waste gas VOCs elimination combustion catalyst technology, natural gas catalytic combustion high-temperature catalyst and application engineering technology, realize the application demonstration of industrial boilers, gas turbines, etc.; develop high hydrothermal stability, adjustable cracking activity and hydrogen transfer activity, anti-vanadium anti- Novel high-performance FCC catalyst with strong alkali nitrogen toxicity.
2. Rare earth ceramic materials. Develop high-performance rare earth zirconium-based ceramic materials to meet the needs of high-end applications such as oxygen sensors, fuel cells, electronic information, and biomedicine.
3. Rare earth alloy materials. Develop high-performance, low-cost rare-earth special steel, rare-earth cast iron, rare-earth aluminum alloy, rare-earth magnesium alloy, etc., improve material performance, and meet the structural material needs of high-end CNC machine tools, aerospace, rail transit, ships and ocean engineering, automobiles, etc. .
4. Rare earth additives and pigments. Develop rare earth functional additives for high-performance polymer materials, heavy metal ion adsorbents, high-efficiency water treatment agents, and environmentally friendly pigments to meet the application needs of high-end building materials, sewage treatment, plastics, and rubber.
5. Low-cost rare earth magnetic materials. Develop low-cost, high-stability rare-earth permanent magnets, high-cerium rare-earth permanent magnets, and high-lanthanum rare-earth permanent magnets. The content of Nd or Dy and Tb is reduced by 20%, and the amount of cerium or lanthanum is replaced by more than 25%. The performance meets the requirements of conventional motors, audio equipment, Application requirements in oil fields and mines.
(5) Promote the utilization of overseas resources and strengthen international cooperation
1. Strengthen international cooperation on rare earths
Promote international production capacity cooperation, and enhance the voice of my country's rare earth enterprises in the market through policy linkage, industry self-discipline and other measures. Give full play to the advantages of technology, talents, and capital, promote rare earth enterprises to go global, and cooperate in the development of overseas resources and deep processing of products. Encourage rare earth companies to cooperate with overseas new material companies and technology research and development institutions to enhance international operation capabilities. Introduce foreign professionals, advanced technology and management experience, and guide foreign investment in rare earth environmental governance, waste product recycling and high-end applications and device manufacturing industries.
2. Promote the internationalization of rare earth standards
Focusing on the transformation and upgrading of the rare earth industry, strengthen the formulation of key rare earth standards, give full play to the role of enterprises, research institutions and intermediary organizations, enhance the influence of China's rare earth standards, promote Chinese standards to go global, and realize the connection between domestic and international standards for rare earths.
(6) Create a new value chain to achieve mutual benefit and win-win results
1. Promoting the transformation and upgrading of the resource real estate industry
Improve the distribution mechanism of rare earth development income, increase the support of resource income in infrastructure construction and cultivation of alternative industries in resource areas, promote poverty alleviation in old revolutionary areas, poverty-stricken areas, and ethnic areas in resource areas, and improve the production and living conditions of local residents. Encourage enterprises to develop intensive processing in areas close to rare earth resources, extend from material processing and production to component manufacturing, semi-finished products and production service industries, increase product added value, and promote the transformation and upgrading of the resource real estate industry.
2. Establish a new value chain
Strengthen the structural reform of the supply side of rare earths, stabilize the relationship between supply and demand, guide price expectations, promote and expand the application demand of rare earths in downstream fields such as energy conservation, environmental protection, and home appliances, and realize the sharing and coordinated development of upstream and downstream interests. With capital and technology as the link, integrate the mid-to-high-end application industry chain through listing, capital increase, mergers and acquisitions, etc., and cultivate new application markets. Guide qualified rare earth enterprises to develop and produce new rare earth materials for military and civilian use, and promote the sharing of military and civilian resources in the field of new rare earth materials. Increase efforts to publicize and promote branded rare earth products, guide enterprises to enhance brand awareness, and support enterprises to create famous trademarks and international brands. Focusing on the "Internet +" development strategy, strengthen the construction of e-commerce platform for rare earth products.
4. Safeguard measures
(1) Playing the role of coordination mechanism
Further give play to the role of the inter-ministerial coordination mechanism for rare metals, continue to implement the requirements of the "Several Opinions", coordinate research and solve major cross-departmental and cross-regional issues, and strengthen the matching and connection between the development plan of the rare earth industry and policies such as science and technology, finance and taxation, land resources, and finance , Improve the industry statistical monitoring and information disclosure system. Give full play to the role of intermediary organizations such as associations and societies, and guide member units to strengthen self-discipline, standardize operations, and orderly competition.
(2) Improving the system of policies and regulations
Promote the promulgation of the "Regulations on the Management of Rare Metals", formulate corresponding rare earth management rules, improve supporting rules and regulations, clarify the responsibilities of local governments and departments, and form a complete legal system for rare earth industry management. Establish a traceability system for rare earth products, covering all aspects of production, distribution, and export, and seriously investigate and deal with various violations of laws and regulations. Improve the relevant policies such as rare earth mining and total production control management methods, rare earth industry standard conditions, and continue to strictly control rare earth mining and total production control management. Establish and improve a rare earth product reserve system in which government reserves and enterprise reserves complement each other, stabilize market prices, and ensure the security of national strategic resources. Establish a social responsibility reporting system and a credit blacklist system for rare earth export companies.
(3) Increase fiscal and taxation support
Coordinate support for rare earth technology research and development through channels such as the central financial science and technology plan (special projects, funds, etc.), and implement the pre-tax deduction policy for corporate research and development expenses. Make full use of existing funding channels such as special projects for industrial transformation and upgrading, provide support for qualified rare earth high-end applications, intelligent manufacturing and other projects, and establish reserve project databases, industry databases, and rare earth expert databases. Study the "first batch" application insurance compensation mechanism of new materials, and support the application and promotion of qualified rare earth new materials. Strive for the central government to continue to carry out pilot projects for the transformation and upgrading of rare earth industries in key resource areas, build characteristic industrial bases, and cultivate regional advantageous industries.
(4) Improving the investment and financing guarantee mechanism
Strengthen the cooperation between the government, enterprises, universities, scientific research institutes and financial institutions, and gradually form a "government-industry-university-research-integration" support and promotion system. Encourage the government and private capital to establish a rare earth industry development fund, guide social resources to invest in the application of new rare earth materials, and support innovative and growing rare earth enterprises. Encourage financial institutions to innovate credit products and services that are in line with the development characteristics of the rare earth industry, and reasonably increase credit support. Support qualified rare earth enterprises to go public for financing and issue bonds.
(5) Strengthen market supervision
Improve the supervision system of the whole rare earth industry chain, and realize the whole process and multi-dimensional supervision of rare earth products. Give full play to the role of local governments, effectively assume the responsibility of the main body of supervision, and realize the normalization of the order rectification work of the rare earth market. Establish a "black and white" list system for rare earth enterprises, implement dynamic management of industry norms, strengthen interim and ex-post supervision, revoke announcement qualifications in a timely manner for announced enterprises with problems such as exceeding planned production and violating normative conditions, and promote inter-departmental policy linkage. Enterprises violating laws and regulations and inefficient production capacity will exit.
(6) Strengthen foreign exchanges and cooperation
Encourage domestic enterprises to use their own technology and management advantages, as well as patents, standards and other technical means to carry out cooperation in foreign rare earth resource development and material deep processing projects. Improve inter-government and inter-enterprise communication, strengthen “going global” enterprise coordination, and improve the quality of Sino-foreign cooperative projects. Strengthen coordination with international financial institutions and increase financing support for international cooperation of rare earth enterprises.